The Gulf war has ended and the US had signed a ceasefire. Three Kings is a movie where US Soldiers come across a jackpot- it is a rolled up treasure map to Saddam Hussein’s stashes of gold. Where it was located was in the rectum of a captured soldier. The men plan to find the stash and split the money. Their plan is put to halt when they meet part of the Iraqi civilian population who give them a different perspective of the war. One of the soldiers Troy is captured. They rescue a group of Iraqi prisoners, including a rebel leader- this begins their own private war. They get help from Iraqi Army deserters who sell them cars stolen from Kuwait.  Meanwhile Troy is being tortured including having to drink Motor oil. The soldiers come back for Troy who later suffers from a punctured lung. The soldiers decide that the Shi’ites should get a bar of gold each and help them escape by getting over the Iranian border. American soldiers intervene in the plan and arrest the soldiers. They offer the rest of the gold to the Americans if the refugees are allowed to pass. The soldiers at the end were cleared of their charges. The stolen gold was returned to Kuwait although the Kuwaits reported some missing. 

To what extent were the conflicts between Iran and Iraq and Iraq and Kuwait fought over oil resources? To what extent were they religious?

A Shiiite revolution takes place in Iran and the Shah was replaced by Ayatollah Khomeini. This concerned the Sunni leader, Saddam Hussein in Iraq. Khomeini was very anti-American so they supported Iraq. War breaks out in fear that the revolution would spread to Iraq. Iran and Iraq fought over control of the Arvand Roud and Shatt Al-Arab waterway. The Arvand Roud was an important channel for both states' oil exports. This was really a war of religion although they both claimed territory of each other’s.

During the Iran-Iraq war, Kuwait had been a close ally and had heavily funded that war. When the war ended Iraq wasn't in a financial position to repay the money they owed Kuwait.Iraq then invades Kuwait in August 1990. There were 30 countries who joined in a coalition against Iraq (this included Arab countries). USA made sure Israel wouldn’t join in fear of losing Arab support. Kuwait was liberated after four days. George Bush Sr did not invade Iraq or remove Saddam in fear of losing the Arab support. Threats of poison and gas were high. Saddam tried to get Israelis involved by firing
SCUD missiles at them. Iraq believed Kuwait was stealing from them when they brought up higher oil prices. Kuwait's refusal to decrease its oil production was viewed by Iraq as an act of aggression against them.

What were the outcomes of the four Arab-Israeli wars (War of Independence, Suez Crisis, 6 Days War, Yom Kippur War) and how did this further establish the country of Israel?

The outcome of the War of Independence was that the Jews were happy and the Arabs were angry. The day the mandate ends the Jews under David Ben-Gurion attack the Arab league countries. The Jews win and increase territory. Palestinians begin terrorist attacks.

The outcome of the Suez Crisis is that the Israelis attack first under their policies. They had a secret deal that the French and British would join in once this happened. Americans were angered and threatened to cut off the oil if they did not back out. The crisis was resolved by the introduction of the UN. Israel’s economy flourishes under the secure condition.

This changed the influence of power in the region from British to French to Russian and American.

The outcome of the 6 Days War was the Egyptian air force, Golan Heights and West bank were destroyed. And they Israelis follow through with the first attack policy.

The outcome of the Yom Kippur War was that the borders were unchanged. The Egyptians planned a surprise attack over the Yom Kippur holiday. This war put the world in financial crisis. The west pushed hard for a settlement due to the rise in oil prices- oil was raised 70%

To what extent did France and Britain make things worse in the Middle East region following World War I? Did the United Nations fulfill its mandate of trying to create world peace?

hough France did contribute to making things worse for the Middle East the majority of this was because of the British.
The British made things worse for the Middle East with the
Balfour declaration. This was an agreement by the British to set up a Jewish homeland in Palestine if they supported them in World War 1.  British had also promised the Arabs independence in the region. This was contentious because Arabs already lived in Palestine and yet they had promised the Jews they would be able to own this land. This seems obvious that this would cause conflict. The
Arab-Israeli conflict begins because the Jews were dispersing and taking away Arab land. There was not enough land for both of them.
Zionist movement took place because the homeland for Jewish (even though promised) had not been created yet.
The ways France made things worse was by giving up their territories such as Syria and Lebanon
The British then hand over the problem to the UN in 1947 (which has still not been completely resolved to this day). UN doesn’t make world peace here, but makes more problems. The UN suggests a
partition. Arabs then attack but the Jews win and then increase their territory.
I don’t think either side will ever by entirely happy. 



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    April 2013